In this lesson Leonard Peikoff explains the Objectivist approach to value judgments, to emotions and to judging other people, contrasting it to both the rationalist and empiricist approaches to these issues. In particular, Peikoff addresses the false alternatives of repression versus emotionalism and of moralizing condemnation versus amoralism. The lesson contains valuable material concerning the importance of emotions and of the need to recognize that there are many optional values — values that are perfectly rational, but which are not dictated by or deducible simply from one’s philosophy.