How do you judge a person’s intellectual honesty (or dishonesty)? How do you distinguish intellectual dishonesty from confusion or intellectual passivity? In his answer to these questions, Leonard Peikoff stresses the need to assess a person’s cognitive context and to take into account certain psychological factors as well as to distinguish what a person holds implicitly versus explicitly. Peikoff concludes the lesson by addressing and answering a question raised at the beginning of the course: does philosophy necessarily pit you against the world?