With the Sparta’s victory in the Peloponnesian War, Persia took major control over the affairs in the Aegean city-states. But soon, Sparta would lose interest in its political claims overseas, while the rest of the Greek world saw the intrusion of Persia as a shameful assault on their autonomy and independence. In this class, John Lewis details the developments and reorganization of the major powers during the first quarter of the fourth century—mainly, Sparta, Athens, and Thebes—and how they negotiated and occasionally waged war to define the terms of their political goals.